leighandgill

Archaeology in East Oxford

Archive for the tag “archaeological investigations”

Damerham

We had a great time earlier this week.  We went to the dig at Damerham in Hampshire county, just South-West(ish) of Salisbury – see the website at the Damerham Archaeology Project.  We stayed in a local pub, the Compasses, which was very comfortable and provided good pub grub and coped beautifully with my inability to eat milk products.

The project itself is a community project led by Helen, Chris, Martyn and Olaf; that’s the same Olaf who is the Project Officer with Archeox. Olaf had suggested that we go down with him and have a couple of days down there to see how he’s been spending his summers for that last few years. As it turned out he couldn’t make it: he wanted to leave going down until the fields had been cultivated and that date seemed rather indeterminate.

One of the main reasons behind the Project is to investigate some aerial photographs, which showed some interesting crop marks, and see how they relate to the geophysics and, ultimately, to invasive (excavation) and non-invasive (field walking) techniques. The field walking has to wait until the land has been cultivated (ploughed and harrowed), so that the ground has been churned up and stuff brought to the surface – hence Olaf’s delayed arrival.

Aerial photo of the site at Damerham. NMR 21271/05 © English Heritage.NMR. Photographer: Damian Grady.

Aerial photo of the site at Damerham.
NMR 21271/05 © English Heritage.NMR. Photographer: Damian Grady.

Four trenches had been opened when we arrived as Chris explained after we had introduced ourselves. From right to left, one trench was across the ditch of the larger circular feature to the right, though no one was actually working there at that time. Below that where there was a circular feature joined to an elongated feature, Jack (Helen’s student from Kingston U.) was supervising a small trench.

Jack's trench, down to the chalk, cleaned up but with a lot of sieving to do!

Jack’s trench, down to the chalk, cleaned up but with a lot of sieving to do!

The largest trench had been put going away from the road across the large feature in the middle of the picture and finally, a small trench across the strange double circular feature to the left of the ‘bite’ out of the field, completed the tour.

The longest trench, gently sloping down the hill. More than one ditch in it.

The longest trench, gently sloping down the hill. More than one ditch in it. Lovely weather, too!

The last feature was especially exciting as it is unique in the British Isles, the only other example being in France, in the Pas-de-Calais.

Explanations over, we set to work with Jack, sieving the spoil which had been removed by the opening of the trench. It was interesting to be excavating – well, sieving – in a completely different geology to the one we are used to. Here we were on the chalk, and only about 30-40 cm down we were down onto solid chalk, showing clearly the grooves cut by deep ploughing – though the farmer says they no longer deep plough, so the archaeology might last a bit longer.

The grooves cut by the deep ploughing can clearly be seen in Jack's trench.

The grooves cut by the deep ploughing can clearly be seen in Jack’s trench.

We sieved away all afternoon – found some flint flakes and some pottery; Medieval and earlier (well, really grotty, anyway). The flint was different – given its age and the environment, the surface changes and goes a milky-whitish colour; nothing like the flint we are accustomed to seeing. One has to look for the bulb of percussion (the little bulbous bit where the flint was struck to split it away from the original core) and the remains of the previous flakes on the dorsal side as the surface change tends to disguise the characteristic ripples that we normally see in flints in our neck of the woods. We had a lot of help as some of the volunteers from previous years had brought along their whole families.

Lots of help with the sieving - this was a quiet  moment - while Helen inspects the trench.

Lots of help with the sieving – this was a quiet moment – while Helen inspects the trench.

At the end of the day we repaired to the pub, the Compasses in Damerham, for a serious relax. We were a bit late in on the next day as we went into Fordingbridge, the nearest town of any size, to do a spot of shopping, but arrived on site at about 10. We had a look at the main trench, where it looked like they had found a couple of post holes at the top of the trench.

The two post holes (?) at the top of the main trench - quite busy by the look of it, a lot of tidying up going on.

The two post holes (?) at the top of the main trench – quite busy by the look of it, a lot of tidying up going on.

Helen reckoned after all that sieving we deserved something a bit more interesting, so introduced us to Angela who was supervising the aptly named Angela’s Anomaly (I like the naming of the trenches – no Invisible Archaeologists here). We had a bit of tidying up to do – surprise, surprise – and then Helen suggested we split the ditch into six parts, so we could excavate three, and get a good number of sections.

The ditch with string already to start excavating - not very easy to see the string, but all will become clear.

The ditch with string already to start excavating – not very easy to see the string, but all will become clear.

While doing this we became aware of another difference from previous excavations; we had to ‘small find’ all finds! At least all we had to do was find Sam, Chris’ son, and he came over with a survey-grade GPS to get the location, so we didn’t have to faff around with tapes and a Dumpy level (though I do quite like doing it the old-fashioned way). We also took some soil samples as we went down, at least after we had got through the disturbed layer caused by ploughing. Another warm day so lunch came as a welcome break.

A bit more cloudy today, but still pretty warm.

A bit more cloudy today, but still pretty warm.

Angela had to leave at lunchtime, so I got promoted to (nominal) trench supervisor – I wondered what Olaf had being saying about us! We kept on going down, assisted by Anthony, a very experienced digger who was familiar with chalk environments. I certainly wouldn’t have recognised the lumps of fire-affected flint which he pounced upon; he says he finds piles of them in the the New Forest where they were used to heat water. When you wet the surface you can see the fracturing caused by the thermal shock as the heated stones are put if the cold water, but dry and out of the ground they just looked like little grey pebbles to me. Gill came across a much softer bit of surface, which turned out to be an animal burrow, which after Helen dug around a bit, seemed to have a bottom layer of much darker material, perhaps an organic-rich layer washed in?

The three sections we were digging, the animal burrow is in the top right.

The three sections we were digging, the animal burrow is in the top right.

We weren’t the only ones to find animal burrows – in the main trench, where it was thought there were a couple of post holes it turned out the ‘complications’ were in fact a badger’s set, so a lot more tidying-up to unpick that one.

The animal burrow, a badger's set by the look of the size, which the post holes morphed into.

The animal burrow, a badger’s set by the look of the size, which the post holes morphed into.

At this point we were being helped by a group of artists from the Isle of Wight who were gathering impressions for future work, as well as experiencing excavating. It made for a busy and entertaining trench, though I rather blew it when, getting up to answer two questions at the same time, twisted and did some serious damage to my knee. Just at the end of the day, so I didn’t miss out on too much, but felt a complete idiot as I limped off to the car. Thankfully I could still drive but was really disappointed to have to miss out on Wednesday – we just drove home so I could get my leg up with cold compresses on the knee in hope that I could recover enough for the journey to the Orkneys.

Apart from the disappointing denouement, it was  great couple of days, and a really big thank you to Chris, Helen, Jack and Martyn (in strict alphabetical order) for making us so welcome, and giving us such an insight into excavating a chalky prehistoric site – we hope to be back in the future.

Leigh & Gill

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Return to ArkT

As we approach the end of the “active” phase of the project we still have a few Test Pits to dig. We have had almost three years of doing things, then a planned one year devoted to writing everything up. The last year driving home the message that it’s all very well having fun (in sub-zero ‘summers’ and driving rain) excavating, it’s all just disciplined destruction unless the whole process is written up and – even more important – communicated.

We had been invited back to the ArkT Centre, in Church Cowley, on a combined Longest Day/Grand Opening of the Playground celebration cum fund-raiser. Before the construction of the Playground took place we had been invited in to do a couple of test pits to see what was there and had mixed results. The test pit in the back garden came up with very little, and came down on a very distinctive ‘natural’ in a short distance; it looked like leopard-skin – yellowy-orange with dark spots. We came to the conclusion that the spots were caused by the roots of the scrub which had grown up before the church had been built, drawing down organic material. As we took a sondage (a smaller pit-within-a-pit) we saw that the dark spots were like Brighton Rock; they extended down from the top so they weren’t some random thing.

The second test pit, where the playground would be built was a lot more interesting; after going down a lot deeper than the first test pit, it came down on an old surface with a ditch cut into it. The pottery in the cut of the ditch was Roman. Not unexpected, given the proximity to the Roman pottery industry, but gratifying nonetheless.

Jo showing us how it should be done!

Jo showing us how it should be done!

So we were more than happy to be invited back. Jo went over the top preparing activities for the smaller ones – colouring drawings, plenty of coloured crayons, etc – while we had plenty of spare trowels for anyone who had the urge to have a go at excavating. We arrived a couple of hours early to get the “boring” stuff out of the way; marking out the pit, de-turfing, accurately locating where the pit was, laying out the tarps and starting on the first context. At four, the doors opened and we were almost immediately inundated with children (parents staying in the background), ranging from real tinies up, who headed straight past all Jo’s carefully prepared goodies – they wanted to dig! We were relegated to explaining how to use a trowel, and rescuing any finds which got missed in all the excitement.

We did not get all that much more done that day, so decided to come back on the following day and carry on as we had really not got anywhere -just redeposited topsoil (though mustn’t underestimate the value of giving people a taste of excavating). After a bit more of the same, we started to get a fair amount of limestone rubble which, with the usual eye of faith and optimism, almost looked like a linear feature – could it be a wall? Rather oddly aligned, to be sure, but enough to spur us on.

A "linear" feature - could we have a wall? What's the technical term for wild optimism?

A “linear” feature – could we have a wall? What’s the technical term for wild optimism?

We decided to halve the test pit, that is, divide it in half and continue digging in only one half. We would draw a line East-West half way across the pit and continue to excavate the southern half – if there was a wall we would see it very clearly in the section, hopefully. As is often the case, as soon as we started to do this the whole picture changed! We came down on the same natural as we had seen in the previous test pit in the back garden of the Centre; the distinctive “Leopard Skin” soil in half of the half – the side nearest the Chapel. As we reckoned that this was the natural, we halved the half again (quartered?) and carried on down in the increasingly rubble-packed side – the West side, nearest the road.

We reached the natural (on the lower right) so only carried on down on the left-hand side.

We reached the natural (on the lower right) so only carried on down on the left-hand side.

We carried on for about another 0.4 metre, but had to call it a day then. It was getting really awkward to dig in such a confined space; if we wanted to go any further we would have had to opened up the half which we had left to give ourselves enough room to work in, and time was running out – by now it was Sunday. So what was the conclusion at the end of the day?

The rubble had been interspersed with pottery, mainly Medieval with one piece of Roman (I think), what looked like a fragment of a mortarium – it has a very distinctive surface, the “gritty” surface which was used for grinding food ingredients on. As we had reached the natural on the side of the pit closest to the chapel, I think what we were seeing was the slope down to the road. This had in the past had a retaining wall, which had been demolished and rebuilt farther away from the current chapel, encroaching on the road(some thing never change!). As all the pottery was Medieval or earlier, this demolition and rebuilding was most probably done in the Medieval period.

All that was left to do was the usual back-filling, then thanking the other volunteers for a good three days work, and retire for a rest in what remained of the weekend. We are all looking forward to hearing what an expert makes of the pottery, all the above remarks about dates were made by us volunteers, so could be slightly wide of the mark! It was pleasant to be digging in some warm weather; it did rain a bit, but at least it wasn’t the cold, windy stuff we had to put up with earlier this year.

Interesting test pits

At last the long winter is over and we’re digging test pits!  Unfortunately on Thursday and Friday, when we dug in the gardens of a convent in East Oxford, it rained most of the time and was bitterly cold and windy all the time.

The convent occupies Fairacres House, which was built in the late 18th/early 19th century. We are not absolutely sure about the previous use of the land as it isn’t in Cowley parish (which we have good maps for) but just, by 100 metres or so, in Iffley (which we don’t). To judge by the adjoining land in Cowley, though, it looks like it wasn’t part of the ridge and furrow field system, but was used as pasture. When we arrived and had a walk around it was clear that the site was on a small promontory, with the land sloping down on three sides.

One of the reasons we were here is that it is near one of the sites where the Bell Collection may have come from. This is a collection of stone tools from the Paleolithic and Neolithic periods. The older part of the collection came from a quarry near Donnington Bridge Road, we think from a quarry which is shown on the 1st Edition OS map, but the newer part came from a quarry somewhere around the convent. Our main problem is that Bell’s original report was lent out and never returned; the only documentation we have are some notes taken at a lecture Bell gave in the early 20th Century. The collection is held at the Pitt-Rivers Museum, where Olaf has been leading groups of us in workshops to start a much closer look at the neolithic part of the collection. So we were keeping our eyes peeled for worked flints!

Opening up the middle test pit, on the edge of the orchard.

Starting up the middle test pit, on the edge of the orchard. Jane appears to be demonstrating the art of standing with one foot off the ground.

We dug three one metre square pits at different locations.  The pit nearest to the house produced 18th and 19th century pottery and then appeared to reach sandy natural soil.  Jo and her team went on down and found the sand had been laid over soil which contained 17th and 18th century pottery and clay pipes, etc.

The middle pit near the vegetable garden contained nice top soil and then a layer of debris, bits of building material, pottery, bone and clay pipe, etc.  Under this we were very excited to find a deposit of several types of Roman pottery which had obviously not moved very far as the breaks were clean and there were no signs of long-term abrasion.  There has been no previous evidence of Roman activity in this part of Oxford – it was believed that they mostly inhabited the hills around the current city.

The end of the first day of excavating.

The end of the first day of excavating. Of course, when we were about to leave, the sun came out.

The third pit was towards the bottom of the garden closest to the river.  Olaf hoped to find evidence of prehistoric activity and found a great many flints but none particularly diagnostic for a particular period.

We found lots of small round lumps of burned charcoal, some obliviously quite modern, and were puzzled until we mentioned it to one of the sisters.  She told us they use it in the censer for incense during services and put it on the bonfire as it is considered blessed and cannot just be thrown away.  Obviously at some time it was buried in the garden.

Field walking among the spuds, a surprisingly productive exercise.

Field walking among the spuds, a surprisingly productive exercise. This gives a better feel for what the weather was like.

On the second day we got permission from the convent’s gardener, Mark, to trample over his magnificent vegetable plot, for a bit of field walking. We drew up a plan, got Olaf to reassemble the GPS to accurately plot the blocks we had marked out, then I asked for volunteers to do the actual walking – as we had come to the back-filling by then there were no shortages on that front! . They had to walk up and then back in the furrows between the banked-up spuds, taking great care not damage Mark’s valuable crop, looking for anything of interest which had been brought to the surface by rotavating. We then ended up with one bag of finds for every square – 12 squares in all – a big thanks to Alison from the Ashmolean for her help during the whole process; it’s the first time I had done this. A quick glimpse at the contents of the bags showed, rather gratifyingly, a concentration of Roman pottery near the second test pit, seemingly tailing away with distance.

Jane explaining what had been found in Jo's test pit - the one nearest the original building. I'm not sure why Jane is doing this rather than Jo  - she could just be hidden behind someone.

Jane explaining what had been found in Jo’s test pit – the one nearest the original building. I’m not sure why Jane is doing this rather than Jo – she could just be hidden behind someone.

At the end of the day, after all the kit had been loaded into various cars and vans for ferrying back to our shed (along with my toolbox, packed up with the rest while I was concentrating on sorting out the field-walking finds) and everyone else had departed, we had a bit of a discussion about what we had found – obviously the Roman pottery was the high point. Not just a few isolated sherds, but a definite localised concentration. Apart from the Roman we did find a small, but significant, amount of Medieval pottery, so it would appear that this little promontory has looked like prime real estate for at least two thousand years!

We had planned on doing the washing on site, but the biting wind and generally horrid weather made us think again, and postpone it until we were indoors with a supply of warm water.

The sisters were very hospitable and took a great interest in everything we did.  We were particularly grateful for the hot tea!

Gill & Leigh

Minchery Priory – Preparation

At last I’m able to get around to talking about last year’s Big Dig at Minchery Paddock – we have had to take some time off owing to day-to-day life intruding. Neither of us had imagined how complicated and time consuming selling our place in London was going to be; however we are now (fingers crossed) on the last lap so can devote a bit more time to the important things in life!

After a whole lot of work on the Team’s part, they got permission from Oxford City Council to dig in Minchery Paddock; a closed-off (in the sense of preventing vehicles in) field as shown on the map.

Location of Minchery Paddock in relation to East Oxford

Location of Minchery Paddock in relation to East Oxford

Here is a close up, showing where the paddock was in relation to the Kassam Stadium (to the right) and Oxford Science Park (to the left).

Close-up of the map above.

Close-up of the map above.

Both maps courtesy of Open Street Map –  © OpenStreetMap contributors.

The site is of interest because of the proximity of Minchery Priory – in the map you can see a building just next to the bottom right of the site; this is the “Priory and ?” pub, a Grade II* listed building,  which was rebuilt in the middle or second half of the 15th century, having been the eastern range of the cloister garth of the priory (Pantin, 1970). 

The car-park side of the Priory and ... ? pub. We never did work out what the ... ? was all about.

The car-park side of the Priory and … ? pub. We never did work out what the … ? was all about.

The name “Minchery” is derived from the Old English ‘mynecu’ or ‘minschen’, a nun. The priory (originally dedicated to St Nicholas) was founded by Robert de Sandford probably in the middle of the 12th century, was taken over by the Templars in approx. 1240 and managed by them until the order was suppressed in 1312. It was dissolved by Wolsey in 1525 after various scandals about the prioress and the nuns and passed to Cardinal (later Christ Church) College, though by 1549 it had passed into the hands of Powell family who held it until the 18th century. More information about the priory can found in an article in the VCH, and about the surrounding area in another article about Sandford, again in the VCH.

Pantin, mentioned above, has provided us with a plan of what he thought was the layout of the priory. He thought the cloister extended to the west from the existing pub, so in theory it could extend into the area which we might be digging in. However we have no really hard evidence for this, one of the reasons for digging here! The Council did think about developing the site so commissioned John Moore Heritage Services to do an evaluation of the site in 2006, which has provided us with some targets for working out where to place our trenches. Apart from this report, there have also been trenches dug when Greater Leys and the Oxford Science Park were developed. These have found prehistoric sherds and flints, evidence for Roman kilns (especially in Greater Leys), a Saxon village under the Oxford Science Park as well as evidence for medieval farm sites.

However the site did provide us with some new challenges – unlike last year at Bartlemas we did not have a friendly College to provide us with a pavilion to use for a start; we had to hire in loos, storage (especially important, we thought, after hearing some horror stories about vandalism from a nearby construction site) and a site office, and last but not least, somewhere for the poor volunteers to shelter if it tipped it down.

The other challenge was the site itself –

This gives some idea of how overgrown the site was before we had it cleared

This gives some idea of how overgrown the site was before we had it cleared – Jane, Jo and David P surveying, and no, none of them are vertically challenged!

We had to get in a commercial crew with a tractor and flail to clear the undergrowth, and to chop back branches in the south end of the site where a whole load of self-set sycamores had grown up. This was one of the reasons for us being here – the roots of these young trees could be damaging any archaeology, especially as they were growing where there might be remains of the priory. Once the clearing had been done, in came the Portacabins and a whole load of fencing as well as a load of tracking to put down so the lorries could deliver all the stuff without getting bogged down. A big thanks to Olaf for this, it was a real bit of choreography to organise everyone arriving in the correct order.

The Portacbins installed - the blue one was for storage - the cream one had the office, the mess room, and a generator - the loos were round the back.

The Portacabins installed – the blue one was for storage – the cream one had the office, the mess room, and a generator – the loos were round the back.

While all this was going on, we also were marking out where to put the trenches. As I mentioned before, we had the John Moore Heritage Services report to use as a starting point, so we planned out trenches accordingly.

Our trenches (the hatched ones) against the John Moore ones (the lines).

Our trenches (the hatched ones) against the John Moore ones (the lines).

Original diagram courtesy John Moore Heritage Services (JMH). A bit confusing of-site, as it shows a range of buildings to the north of the pub which are no longer there; it’s just a bit of a wasteland used as an overflow car park on match days and an area for a bit of gratuitous fly-tipping.

We decided on three trenches. Trench 1, at the north end of the site, up by the brook, was put in because JMH had found a layer of peat there – we wanted to take a continuous set of soil samples from this layer. Not only could we get environmental samples and therefore start to work out what the contemporary environment was like, but by doing some radiocarbon dating we will be able to find when the peat started to be layed down and when it stopped. Both are most probably linked to human activity changing the way water flowed in the area.

Trench 2, in the middle by the office and storage sheds, was put in next to two JMH trenches. JMH trench 3 which contained a couple of robber trenches and a possible boundary ditch and JMH trench 4, containing a well (which we planned on avoiding!), a hearth and a possible floor surface. As you can see from the plan, Trench 2 spanned the two JMH ones.

Trench 3 , in the south, spanned JMH trench 8 – they would have had trouble putting it in today as a tree had grown up in the middle of it – hence the rather odd shape of our trench. JMH found walls, aligned east-west , but we would have dug there anyway, owing to the proximity to the pub. While marking this trench out prior to the digger coming in, we came up against one of the drawbacks of using survey-grade GPS – the device does not like working near trees. It has to have line -of-sight contact with the satellites to work properly. I was finding one measurement would be OK, then it would give a ludicrous distance to the next plotted point. The marvels of modern technology!

Talking of which, the reason I haven’t mentioned geophysics is, as JMH discovered, the site had been used for doing a lot dodgy things to cars in the past, including torching them. This has resulted in a pretty even spread of bits of magnetised iron over the site, so a gradiometer just gives such a noisy result as to be virtually useless. That’s not taking into account that we discovered we had stumbled onto Mole Central – I would not have liked trying to walk in the nice and even style required by that sort of survey over a surface which seemed to have mole-hills on its mole-hills.

After we had marked out all of the trenches we let the digger loose –

The digger in trench 3 - you can see the pub in the background.

The digger in trench 3 – you can see the pub in the background.

The digger driver, Nigel, was a real asset; we had worked together before at Bartlemas and apart from having a real feel for the machine, and being a nice guy, he’s developing quite an interest in the archaeology. We rapidly came down onto (we hope) archeology in all three trenches – looking good for the start of the actual excavating!

Leigh

Test Pit 54 – part 1

Last week, we were involved in a return visit to Mill Lane, where we dug a test pit last year as part of a test pit weekend in Iffley. A very wet weekend in Iffley. The second day was tipping it down to such an extent that we called it off at about mid-day and retreated to the Prince of Wales for well deserved pint. However, we had obviously piqued the interest of the house’s owner, as she contacted Jane again this year and invited us back to carry on and expand the trench we had put in – we were more than happy to oblige as we found some interesting archaeology (what we took to be the footings for a wall) rather than just the usual sprinkling of finds. So, at rather short notice, Olaf sent out a call for volunteers and we waited for emails – a bit close to the Minchery dig and there was another test pit going in in Ronnie Barker’s old house, but we got enough to make a go of it.

Day 1 – Monday 24th

Well, this looked very familiar! Total wash-out – and the forecast was for the downpour to continue for most of the day. Gill and I went to the site, partially to explain to the owner and partially to talk to anyone who turned up (luckily we caught everyone apart from Tricia by phone – and she had agreed to turn up early to help us set up). We then went off to ArkT to meet up with Jane and discuss a number of things and pick up some paper-work. Bumped into Jo, who was collecting the equipment for the other test pit – both Gill and I had to do a double-take; she was soaked to the skin, by the look of it, waterproofs notwithstanding. Went home to pray for better weather tomorrow.

Day 2 – Tuesday 25th

Thankfully, better weather. Got on site at 9:30 to unload the car and get things set up – Tricia had arrived early as well to us a hand. Then on to the deturfing : –

Tricia cutting the turf prior to lifting them and storing them – in order! – on the tarpaulin.

Then on to the real business – excavating. As soon as we had tidied up the exposed soil, it became apparent there was a paler, ‘mortary’ looking area – was this a change in context (a new layer) showing up? Carefully trowelling back confirmed we had a surface, sloping from down from south (higher) to north (deeper), which looked as if it had sand or mortar trodden into it. There were also two holes in it in the south eastern corner. We decided to split the trench in half, and excavate the half with the two holes through our trampled surface in. This was also the side of the trench which joined up with last years excavation, so hopefully we would catch the “wall” which we had found then.

The “trampled” surface, showing the two holes and the string dividing the trench in half. We would excavate the half nearer the camera tomorrow.

Just as we were leaving the owner told us that when she had moved in, the previous owner, a keen gardener, had laid a shrub bed between the path in front of the front-door and the rockery with a huge conifer in it. She had had the shrubs grubbed out and the bed laid to turf. This was smack-bang over our trench – was that what the holes were?

Day 3 – Wednesday 26th

Slightly slower progress today as there were only three of us – prior commitments taking their toll. We started excavating the two ‘holes’, as they would have been the most recent events, having been cut through the surface, and also carrying on the excavation below the surface in the north of the trench – this was well out of the way of the two ‘holes’. When Christopher and Tim had started to do this yesterday, they had both noted how much more compact, indeed how tough it was to excavate, compared with the layer above the surface. This is what made us think that the two holes contained a continuation of the layer above – it seemed so much more like it rather than the compact layer just below the surface.

The perils of jumping to conclusions! As we went further down in the north half of the trench the soil became more and more friable, and lost the small pieces of CBM (Ceramic Building Material – small bits of brick and tile) and sand and mortar, and came to resemble the layer above the trample surface. It was also becoming apparent that we couldn’t see any difference between the ‘holes’ and the surrounding soil. We realised that the surface was the result of trampling, we think while the Edwardian (judging by the style) extension was being built, which had compressed a thin surface layer while embedding the sort of stuff one finds on a building site into it. The ‘holes’ may well have been dug to plant shrubs in, but as they would have been immediately back-filled with the soil that came out of the hole, it is, of course, indistinguishable from the surrounding soil.

A valuable lesson learnt, and something to watch out for in the future. So we stopped digging the holes and concentrated on just levelling the whole surface off. Sheila was excavating what we thought was a layer of sand and mortar, but as she trowelled it back, it looked less and less like a layer, and more like an area where the builders had just been piling stuff up – it wasn’t a homogeneous layer, just a mixture of different types of soil.

The mixed up ‘layer’ that Sheila was excavating.

She did find what looked like electrical cable – not plastic insulation, though, which would tie in with earlier on last century. Then just as we were finishing off the day we found this:

The feature that appeared at the end of the day.

Now that looked a bit more like a feature! I took a print-out of this photo along to the evening’s talk (about last year’s dig at Bartlemas Chapel) to show to everyone – it definitely got people’s enthusiasm up for tomorrow’s dig.

I’ll finish off describing the dig tomorrow – I forgot my camera on the fourth day, so I borrowed Tricia’s one and she will be bringing a USB stick along to tonight’s talk (about the upcoming Minchery dig) and I’m also taking some of the finds, mainly pottery, so Jane can have a look and hopefully give us some dating info.

Leigh

Lots of Practical Things

A really busy week after the building survey – we had Saturday off, just wandered down to Bartlemas and had a chat with Jane and the guys who were carrying on from where we left off the previous day. Rather disturbingly they seemed to be doing a lot more drawing than we had managed the previous day!

The next day we went down to Bartlemas Chapel again, this time to help out with the Oxford Open Doors day. This is an Oxford-wide event where all sorts of places open their doors (for free). A lot of the colleges allow much wider access than normal, and museums have special events (a lot have to be booked) like tours of their conservation facilities. As I mentioned in the last blog, Christopher and Sarah, who are trustees for the Chapel, were opening it up so we went down to give them a hand. I had printed out an A1 size enlargement of the plan of Trench 1 from the dig at the Chapel – the trench around the chapel.

The Plan of Trench 1, around the Chapel – on the day we pencilled in where we thought the footprint of the earliest chapel went.

We used this as a starting point for a description of the history of the chapel, from the 12th century on, in the light of what we had discovered from the excavation. Christopher said later on that over 200 people turned up on the day, which I think must be an under-estimate; my throat was telling my that I talked to a lot more than that.

Visitors at the Bartlemas Open Doors event, crowding around the table where we had the plan.

We are having a talk about the dig next Wednesday, the 26th, for full details go to the Archeox website. Jane and Graham took the opportunity to carry on with the survey drawings.

Graham carrying on with the survey drawing from the day before – I didn’t manage to get a picture of the rather Heath Robinson method of holding the measuring staffs against the wall of the Chapel.

I had wanted to do a bit myself, but whenever I was about to have a go, more visitors turned up – ah well, there’s always another day.

The day after we went along to another Animal Bones workshop – we are trying to finish up the initial pass through the animal bones from the Bartlemas dig, so Julie can get down to the proper analysis. Whereas in the past we were doing one step at a time – i.e. either working out what the bones were, then analysing their condition and checking if anything had happened to them (burning, being chewed, etc) and last of all, pulling all the info together onto a summary sheet for that context – this time we did them all. So we started of with a bag full of bones and ended up with a bag full of a) bags containing bones & description sheets & b) one summary sheet. This was then passed onto Julie who was stuck behind her laptop, keying in the summary sheets.

Bones separated out into groups, ready for Julie to come and tell us what they actually are, as opposed to what we thought they were – though we were starting to get better at it!

We didn’t manage to finish the whole lot, but made decent inroads; Julie ran another session on Wednesday to hopefully finish it all off. Gill could not make it, but I turned up, and with a lot of hard work we managed to get it all done – fired up by Jane announcing that she has sorted out our big dig for this year – it’s going to be at Minchery Priory, next door to the Kassam Stadium, starting at the beginning of October.

The location of this autumn’s dig.

There has been some exploratory digging done here, and as the scrubby trees are getting bigger, their roots will start to damage what archaeology there is, so the council has given us permission to do some rescue archaeology – follow this space!

Then on Thursday we had a finds sorting session at ArkT (see the earlier “Finds Sorting” blog), but this time it was the finds from the various Test Pits we have done so far – at least 52 of them.

Jane and I discussing something – not giving each other a Masonic handshake!

Again, good progress was made, and Jane has said she has had good feedback from the various experts that the sorted finds go to of the method we have adopted. Having a summary of everything in that particular context alongside photos of the complete assemblage has proved to be pretty popular. You can see (just about) from the photo how we have laid out all the finds grouped together, we take one overall photo, then as many close ups as necessary. The first session of many, I suspect.

So, as I said at the beginning, a busy week – and no let up in the near future. I’m organising a follow up dig in Iffley of the Test Pit we dug in Mill Lane for the week before the dig at Minchery Priory, there is a taster session at the Ashmolean museum where some of us are going to help out with cataloguing their collection (a never ending game of catch-up from their point of view, an excellent opportunity to broaden our knowledge of different sorts of finds from ours), a talk next Wednesday about the Bartlemas dig (see the link above) and then the start of the dig at Minchery Priory.

Topographic survey by tractor, etc

Olaf has done had his first stab at doing the topo survey of South Park (see Geophysics at South Park). After having worked out the best way to attach our GPS unit to the tractor –

The GPS unit strapped to the front of the tractor with gaffer tape

Then Olaf pressed the button and off the tractor went, gathering info as it went. The grass was pretty long, as you can tell from the picture Jo sent me –

The tractor in full flight – you can just see (hopefully) the aerial of the GPS device poking up at the front of the bonnet (?, perhaps engine cover) of the tractor.

Gang mowing in action, in the service of archaeology! Olaf had set the GPS to collect data every 1 second, which gave the following set of collection points –

Each green circle represents a sample point.

Which when he had crunched the numbers gave us the following –

The results of the survey.

I’m not quite sure what the drop-outs represent – I’ll have to have a chat with Olaf when he returns from his travels. I do know he plans to have another go when they next mow the park, as they will do it at right angles to the last time, so we’ll get a different set of data-points, which will increase the resolution of the final image.

I had written quite a lot more, but when I tried to save it, I was asked if I was sure I meant to do that (?), and when I said yes – you’ve guessed it – everything I had just typed in disappeared. Thank you, WordPress.

Main point was I’ve finished adding the fields to the Cowley Enclosure map –

All the cultivated areas added to the background details.

I’m now letting my eyes return to normal!

We’ll report on yesterday’s talk on Oxford’s Medieval Farming Landscape and other tings in the next Blog – I will have calmed down by then.

Leigh

Various Updates

Nothing specific going on, just continuing with this and that, though some interesting stuff has come to light.

First off, Olaf has sent me the following images following on from our morning in South Park.

Olaf’s professionally presented results showing the sample points from when we did the initial test walk. Imagery © Bing Maps/Microsoft Corporation and its data suppliers – this applies to the next 2 images as well.

Pretty slick, eh. Pity it doesn’t reproduce so well at this sort of resolution, though the background image does show up the ridges and furrows rather nicely. I’ve extracted the relevant bit and blown it up a bit – what you are looking at is the processed result of the scan overlayed with a red circle showing each point at which a sample was taken.

The same image, enlarged, so it’s hopefully a bit clearer.

We all did a few back and forth scans, then Olaf did the wander around (this was before opening time, honest!). The next shot is of the processed results, again blown up a bit from the centre of the image Olaf sent me.

The processed results of our wandering around.

The spotty bits are where we bounced a bit while carrying the GPS, but you can clearly see the ridge and furrow – the slightly strange bits at the top right and bottom left are where the software didn’t have enough data to work on and was trying to be creative.

So that was the “proof of concept” trial, and it seems to have worked pretty well, so Olaf went off this morning and met up with Andy to strap the GPS on to the tractor and do the real data collection run. I’ve heard it went OK, and Jo sent me this photo –

The GPS unit strapped to the front of the tractor.

Olaf went back to the gaffer tape, I see – I’m looking forward to the final result, I’m just hoping the tractor didn’t bounce around too much. With no suspension and the bumpiness of the terrain it could be a problem, but we can only wait and see what comes out in the processing.

We’ve also found a lot more about the Enclosure map, or maps. Graeme came across this map http://www.icowley.info/words/15,and started to look into it a bit more. I contacted the web site in question, but they just pointed me at the Oxfordshire History Centre. Graeme eventually found this new map on microfilm at the OHC, which has opened up some new avenues which he and Christopher are looking into. With the help of Carl Boardman, History Services Manager at the OHC, we realised that when the Enclosure award was worked out, the commissioners had their own working copies of the maps, which ended up in London, and are now at The National Archive. They also deposited one copy with the diocese, which is the one at the OHC, and another copy with the parish – this one often got lost. As I said, new avenues to look down.

And talking about maps, the digitising of the Cowley Enclosure map is coming on – I’ve done the rivers and streams, the existing roads (as of 1853) and the roads which were to created after the enclosure, and I’ve made a start on the houses with their surrounding property. Here is a quick glimpse of how far I’ve got.

The whole map.

And a close up –

Temple Cowley

Just as I was about to publish this post, Olaf phoned me up, alerting me to a couple of emails he had sent me about the results of today’s topo survey – they look great – and I’ll do a report about that tomorrow.

Leigh

Test Pit 52

This Thursday and Friday Gill and I have been organising a test pit in the back garden of one of the volunteer’s house – a big thank-you to David and Catriona for allowing us to dig up their lawn! I had been round a few days earlier to have a chat with David about where to site the pit – we only do a 1×1 metre pit, so it’s not too disruptive – but needs a bit of thought. We have to be away from trees, for instance, and not too near the house, though in this case the house was a 30’s build, so would have been hand-built – modern houses with the footings excavated by mechanical diggers have a large radius of disturbance – think of the reach of the digger’s arm.

Then I had the joy of answering all the emails -I had agreed to do all that side of it; my admiration for all the work Jane has put in in the past goes up day-by-day! I was amazed at how quickly people responded; I closed the book about an hour after Olaf sent out the initial email. Then all that needed doing was for me to go up to the shed to get all the stuff needed – it filled up the boot quite tidily. Then I thought it might be a good idea to have the kit with us to do some finds washing if the opportunity arose, so off to the shed again. Eventually Thursday rolled around and it was time to start.

On the first day we had Christopher, Phil, Leon and Sue; it was Sue’s first day with the Project, though Phil and Christopher are veterans of the Bartlemas dig, and Leon has done a couple of test pits in the past. After the usual Health & Safety talk and signing in I gave a bit of background – as I said above, these houses were built in the 30’s (’35 I think David mentioned), before that, at least in the 1st series OS map, it was fields. Before that, in both the 1853 Enclosure map and the 1777 Christ Church map, it is shown as being part of  “Cowley Marsh”, and Gill and I are especially interested in that; could we find any evidence as to what the Marsh actually was?

A familiar scene – one guy doing all the work, while the rest of us stand around and watch!

After laying out the outline and taking the turf off, we made a start. First topsoil (about 0.10m), which had been layed over a thin layer of pea gravel and general building detritus (about 0.03m), then lots and lots of clay. Throughout the day we found charcoal, in varying sizes – which means there was human activity going on somewhere around.When we got to about 0.22m down we decided to do a “sondage”; take a small part of the trench and dig deeper there, rather than taking the whole trench deeper. When you can’t see any differentiating features across the plan view of the trench (or pit) it’s OK to do – you can always widen the sondage if anything interesting warrants it.

There was another layer of what looked like builder’s rubble, mixed in with a slate-grey coloured clay (between 0.26 & 0.35 m) down in the sondage, but most of it was a dark yellow clay with the occasional lenses of blue clay. We found some copper wire, pieces of roofing slate and what looked like lime-mortar.

The sondage. showing the layer of builder’s rubble about two-thirds of the way down.

That concluded the first day – as the forecast looked a bit iffy, we covered up the test pit with some wood slats a weighted down plastic sheeting (I’m sure I took a photo of that, but the trench camera was playing up – I took my own one the following day).

The second started off a bit greyer than the first, though we had thankfully missed the rain. Christopher, Phil and Leon carried on from the day before, with Laura coming along for the day – it was her first day with the Project, though she had some excavating experience from the Bamburgh Project (in Northumberland). We carried on excavating, but as it was a bit awkward getting more than one person digging, with two people feeling their way through the clay spoil (you try sieving clay!), we started washing finds. Phil volunteered to do the washing, with Leon splitting his time between washing and digging – when we down deeper he was the only one of us who could fit in the sondage! I had popped back to the shed to get a mini-mattock, as nothing else would make an impression on the clay. Just before we got down to the natural (the undisturbed geology) we came across our major find of the dig (we think, it was identified by Jane with me describing it over the phone, not ideal) – a piece of Roman pottery. The natural was a bluey-grey clay, with pieces of degraded limestone interspersed in irregular clumps throughout it, topped by a concentration of pieces of Gryphaea (fossilised bivalves, like large oysters).

All that was left to do was to backfill the pit, which with the number of people to hand, was no trouble at all.

Leon stamping down the soil as we backfilled the test pit.

The turfs came up a bit proud, as they tend to, but David said he would deal with that – a good couple of days – two new members welcomed – and a bit more evidence to fit into the broader picture which is slowly emerging.

Leigh

Geophysics at South Park

I’ve just got back from a meeting with Olaf & David Pinches at South Park,

South Park, in relation to the rest of East Oxford

where Olaf had arranged to meet up with Chris & Andy from the City Council’s Parks and Leisure Department. Chris (whose background is in archaeology!) is being really helpful towards the project, and has agreed to try a novel form of surveying – we are going to strap the GPS to the side of a tractor so that we can gather a whole load of info while Andy mows the park.

The GPS has a setting whereby you can get it to take readings at specified time intervals, say once every second, so in theory, we could get a complete survey of the park done in the time it takes to mow it. It is going to need a bit of fiddling with the attaching of the GPS to the tractor – the two main problems are going to be vibration, as a tractor has no suspension. The only thing that stops (barely, at that, from experience) the driver getting shaken to death is a sprung seat. The other one is the actual way of attaching the GPS – both Chris & Andy suggested cable ties rather than gaffer tape, which had been our first idea. The main point is avoiding a horribly expensive sound as the GPS drops off and promptly gets mowed, with extreme prejudice!

Olaf is going to meet up again with them when Andy brings the tractor and gang-mower along to have a go at sorting out the practicalities. After they had gone off to carry on working (this is about the busiest time of year for them, everything growing like mad and with the school hols, the parks being used like mad) we had a go at using the GPS in this automatic data collection mode. First we started off by doing an area near where we were (the entrance on Headington Road), all taking turns to do a bit, then we set off up the hill to so some more serious work.

David’s area of interest is (rather imprecisely) Oxford during the Civil War, which ties in nicely with doing a survey of South Park, as there are, hopefully, the remains of the earth-works the Parliamentarians set up to bombard the city which was the Royalist capital. You can see why – you get a marvellous view of the “dreaming spires” up there. After a little confab –

David and Olaf working out which area to walk to get a representative sample.

Dave set off at a brisk pace, walking up and down the hill, to get a mini survey covering a section of the ramparts. In the above photo you can also just about pick out the medieval ridge-and-furrow field system – the yellow Plantain is flowering along the tops of the ridges which you can see stretching diagonally across the photo. Cycling across the park must almost make you sea-sick, the ridge-and-furrows are so well preserved.

David treading boldly!

The purpose of all this hard work was to get some representative samples of the sort that the tractor might gather, so that Olaf can play around with it a bit, to see how it comes out. He is also going to look into if there is any LIDAR data for the park – but it’s a bit random as the main amount of data collection has been by the Environmental Agency for compiling flood-risk maps. Whether areas off to the side get looked at depends on flight paths, which rivers, and streams are their responsibility, and all sorts of other factors, so it’s a bit of a lottery, but worth looking at as the data is very high quality. You can manipulate it in all sorts of ways to bring out detail which might not be noticed under ordinary viewing.

We finished up and I gave David a lift back to Rewley House with the GPS (it packs into a rather unwieldy large red flight case) while Olaf went off to a meeting with Jane.

I’m carrying on preparing for a Test Pit which Gill and I are running, just off Cowley Road, tomorrow and Friday, which I think is going to be interesting – regardless of what finds turn up, the location is in the area of Cowley Marsh. We have been thinking about what precisely “Marsh” might mean. When we did a test pit in the Elder Stubbs allotments we came down onto sandstone after about 0.40 metres which doesn’t seem all that marshy. But do we know it is pretty damp around Bartlemas, so more information is going to be useful. As an aside, I was talking to Christopher Franks, who lives in the Farmhouse opposite Bartlemas Chapel the other day and he says that the trench around the Chapel, which was our “excuse” for last year’s dig there, is a great success. During the downpours earlier on this year, the chapel stayed dry throughout!

I’ll be back with what happens at the test pit this weekend and what Olaf comes up with from the survey.

Leigh

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